avoid secondary structures
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Please visit About for Primer3 and Primer3Plus citation requests.

Primer3Prefold uses the software UNAFold for folding the DNA, a successor of mfold.
License conditions require that you cite the following article if you use UNAFOLD through Primer3Prefold:
Markham, N. R. & Zuker, M. (2008) UNAFold: software for nucleic acid folding and hybriziation. In Keith, J. M., editor, Bioinformatics, Volume II. Structure, Function and Applications, number 453 in Methods in Molecular Biology, chapter 1, pages 3–31. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. ISBN 978-1-60327-428-9.